Botany Lab Help

BIO 2500 Principles of Botany - Kean University, Union, NJ


updated Aug. 14, 2003
About this site Links Assignment

Gymnosperms  Gymnosperms  Artificial Key to Families
Gymnosperms Lecture U. Maryland Pinophyta Gymnosperms Data Base 
Gymnosperms Overview Seed plants Links to many labeled images Gymno 1
Images Bot 125 look for 
groups alphabetically
Cycad Course outline Gymnosperms
?Living "Gymnopserm" Groups - comparison ?Survey of Plant Kingdom
?click here   or ?here 
Ginkgophyta - images  Ginkgophytes Ginkgoales
*Ginkgo - links to images
Ginkgo Tree   Tree Ginkgo  -  short shoots with seeds Ginkgo - notes, links to images of sporangia
Ginkgo Leafy branch Ginkgo leaf  leaf shapes - variations
Ginkgo - stem Ginkgo - leaf Ginkgo - microsporangium - labels
*Ginkgo - x.s. stem - labels Ginkgo - spur shoot (winter) Ginkgo - microsporangia
Ginkgo - branch + seeds Ginkgo - tree + branch *Ginkgo - seed - mouseover
Ginkgo- propagation  branch with ovules - Ginkgo Ovules + leaves
male and female - male + female Megasporangia - young ripe seeds
Ginkgo - leaf fossil - Google images
?Cycadales  The Cycad Pages  Cycadophyta images U. Wisc. 
Cycadophyta images U. Wisc.
Cycas revolta  ovules and sporophyll Cycad cone megasporophyll
Zamia floridana
Zamia floridana Female - Strobilus
Zamia Female strobilus, 
whole and l.s. 
Zamia- ovules ovules
Cycad - Cycas microsporophyll with microsporangia  Zamia ovule - section cycad - leaf fossil
Welwitschia Habit Welwitschia images with Grman text Welwitschia  links to images 
Welwitschia - U. Wisc.
?Ephaedrales  ?Gnetum  Ephaedra
?Gnetales Ephaedra images at end
 Gnetum - Google images  Gnetum - index of images
*Coniferophyta Coniferales ?Conifers Table - Pinaceae, Cupressaceae, Taxaceae
Pinophyta foto album *Coniferophyta, Gnetophyta
Pine Life Cycle - great links  Pine  - life cycle, description with links  images -
Pinus images U. Wisc. Pine - life cycle
Pine l.s. Male cone - labels  Branch with male cones
Pine Staminate cones  Pine Staminate cone l.s. 
images - Pine microsporangiate Pine pollen 
Pine - l.s. staminate cone  Quiz with images
Pine pollen - 1000X Pine pollen -  fresh pollen
Pine pollen - Google images germinated pollen
Pine female cone, young  Pinus nigra  1st year cone Pine pollen tubes - labels
Ovulate cones young dissected cone - ovules **Ovuliferous scale - ovules
Pine Ovulate cone l.s. Pine Ovuliferous scale - labels l.s. ovule
Pine Megasporangium  Pine Mature ovule, archegonia 
l.s. - labels 
 Pine Pollen tube / archegonia
Pine Megasporangium archegonium - labels Images - scroll to coniferophyta
Pine Ovule / Megagametophyte - labels  Pine Archegonia - labels  Pine embryo - l.s.
Pine - fertilization Megagametophyte and Embryo - with labels Pine - Seed and seedlings 
Seed dissected   dissected Pine l.s. seed - labels seedling
Seedlings Pinus seed - Google images  
?Pine - fascicle + bract with labels ?Pinus staminate cone - l.s.  ?Pine - x.s. pine needles
Woody plants links to photos 
trees of Oregon conifers Links to images and descriptions 
Bristlecone pine 
Taxus - Yew Juniperus Hemlock
Various conifers - U. Wisc. conifer - Google images Pinus - Google images
 Keys Conifer key  

Lab Exercise 14

BIO 2500 Principles of Botany - Kean University, Union, NJ


I selected links that provide images of Gymnosperms similar to those observed in laboratory. Review the links as you prepare for lab and as you study for your lab exam.

Reminder: Bring one branch of a Conifer with cones with you to the Gymnosperm lab. Where to collect a Conifer branch with cones?

In lab you are asked to focus on the following:

  1. Sample the diversity of Cycads, Ginkgo, Gnetophyta and Conifers and learn to recognize the characteristics of each division.
  2. Examine in detail the stages in the reproductive cycle of a Pine.

Where to collect a Conifer branch with cones

Most of the conifers are evergreen plants and many produce woody cones that persist on the tree for long periods of time. For these reasons, you should have little difficulty locating a variety of different Conifers on the Kean University campus.

Although Pines are among the most common conifers in our area, there are very few pines on campus, and it is not easy to collect branches with cones from those we do have. If you read lab exercise 14 you will note that locations are mentioned for some deciduous conifers ( Metasequoia, Larch). You may elect to collect from one of these trees even if the leaves have dropped. If you do so, try to bring a sample of the fallen foliage with you.

The larch tree directly outside of the Biology Office usually has cones that are easy to reach and that can be cut without damaging the appearance of the tree.

Whatever you collect, take only a small sample and please use proper pruning techniques when collecting your specimen. Do not collect specimens from private property without receiving permission from the owner.

Prepare in advance by looking at the examples on the website, illustrations in your text, and illustrations in other reference books.


           Assignment for Laboratory Exercise 14 - Gymnosperms

1.   Collect and bring to laboratory a Conifer branch with cones.
     Display your specimen at your desk.

2.  Examine the materials on display in the room. These will
     include living and preserved specimens representing
     diversity of Gymnosperms; type specimens of the Divisions
     Ginkgophyta (Maidenhair Tree), Cycadophyta (Cycads), and
     Pinophyta (Conifers); and living specimens and prepared
     slides to illustrate the reproductive pattern of Pine.

3.   Learn the major characteristics of the Divisions
     Ginkgophyta, Cycadophyta and Pinophyta. Use Ginkgo biloba
     (Cycadophyta), Zamia (Cycadophyta)  and Pinus (Pinophyta)
      to represent these divisions.

4.   Examine the vegetative characteristics of Pine. Dissect a
     vegetative bud longitudinally and observe next year's stems
     with pine needles. Examine a prepared section of a pine leaf
     (Pine leaf, c.s.).

5.   Dissect fresh female cones to observe ovules (1st year cones)
     and seeds (2nd or 3rd year cones) of Pine. Observe microsporangia
     and pollen (microgametophytes) as well as megasporangia and
     megagametophytes in prepared slides of Pine.

6.   Label the Pine diagrams (Figure 14.5 and 14.6) and color them
     as directed on page 14-2.

7.   Prepare for a quiz.